by Genovese MC, et al
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The inflammatory reflex plays a role in regulating innate and adaptive immunity by modulating cellular and molecular inflammatory pathways. The vagus nerve is a major constituent of the inflammatory reflex and studies have shown that the reflex can be activated by electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve. In this first in-human pilot study, we assessed the safety and efficacy of a novel miniaturised vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) device for the treatment of multidrug-refractory rheumatoid arthritis.