by Yaakov A. Levine, et al

Treating diseases nonpharmacologically, using targeted neurostimulation instead of systemic drugs, is a hallmark of the burgeoning field of bioelectronic medicine. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the discovery and function of the prototypical neuroimmune reflex, the “inflammatory reflex.” We discuss various biomarkers developed and used to translate early physiological discoveries into dosing parameters used in experimental settings, from the treatment of animal models of disease through a proof-of-concept clinical study in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Finally, we relate how unique aspects of this form of therapy enabled the design of a next-generation implanted pulse generator using integrated electrodes, currently under evaluation in a U.S.-based clinical study for patients with drug refractory RA.